Azerbaijan
The Republic of Azerbaijan lies in the borderlands of Asia and Europe. It is situated in the south-eastern part of the Southern Caucasus and shares borders in the north with the Russian Federation, in the south with the Islamic Republic of Iran, in the west with Turkey, Georgia and Armenia, and in the east its neighbors across the Caspian Sea are Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. 
 
Country Name: Azərbaycan Respublikası (Republic of Azerbaijan) 
Capital: Bakı (in USSR Baku) with a population of 
1 811 000 (according to census)
State Language: Azerbaijani
Religion: Religion is separated from the State and all religions are equal before the law
Population: The population is 9 000 000 people (January, 2010)
Monetary Unit: Manat (1 AZN = 1.20 USD as of December, 2009)
National Holidays
January 01-04

New Year

March 8Women's Day
March 20-24 
Novruz Bayramı (Celebration of Spring)
May 9Day of Victory over Fascism
May 28Republic Day
June 15National Salvation Day
June 26Armed Forces Day
September  9-10Ramathan
October 18National Independence Day
November 9Day of Flag
November 12Constitution Day
November 17National Revival Day
November 16-17

Gurban Bayramı

December 31Day of Solidarity of Azerbaijanis throughout the World
 Memorable Days:
 
January 20 Day of Shehids' (Martyrs) Remembrance 
February 26Day of Khojali Remembrance
March 31Genocide of Azerbaijanis
  
Territory:
 
Area: 86,600 sq km
Length of Land Boundaries: 2,646 km 
Borders with Neighbouring Countries: Armenia - 1007 km, Georgia - 480 km, Iran - 756 km, Russia - 390 km, Turkey - 13 km
 
Administrative Division
 
The Republic of Azerbaijan consists Autonomous Republic - Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikası), 65 regions, 69 cities, 13 urban regions, 130 settlements of urban type and 4354 rural settlements.
  
Major Cities
  
Baku, Ganja, Khankendi, Mingechevir, Naftalan, Sumqaıt, Naxchıvan, Shirvan.
 
Regions 

Absheron, Aghdam, Aghdash, Aghjabedi, Aghstafa, Aghsu, Astara, Balakan, Beilagan, Barda, Bilasuvar, Cabraıl, Calilabad, Dashkəesen, Devəchi, Fizuli, Gedebey, Goranboy, Geoychay, Gioy giol, Hajıgabul, Xachmaz, Khizi, Khojavend, Khocalı, Imishli, Ismayıllı, Kalbajar, Kurdamir, Gakh, Gazakh, Gabala, Gobustan, Guba, Gubadly, Gusar, Lachın, Lankaran, Lerik, Masally, Neftchala, Oghuz, Saatly, Sabirabad, Salyan, Samukh, Siyazan, Shamakhy, Shamkir, Shaki, Shusha, Tartar, Tovuz, Ujar, Yardimly, Yevlakh, Zagatala, Zangilan, Zardab, Babek, Julfa, Ordubad, Sadarak, Shahbuz, Sharur.
 
Government

Form of Government: Azerbaijanian state is democratic, legal, secular, unitary republic. State power is based on the principle of division of powers: Milli Majlis (Parliament) exercises legislative power; executive power belongs to the President; and law courts exercise judicial power.
 
Legislative Power: Milli Majlis - one chamber body comprising 125 deputies, elected by direct elections for a 5 year term.
 
 
Head of State: The President of the Azerbaijan Republic is the Head of the Azerbaijanian state. The President is elected for a 5-year term by way of general, direct and equal elections, with free, personal and secret ballot. Executive power in the Azerbaijan Republic belongs to the President.
 
 
Head of Government: The President by consent of Milli Majlis appoints Prime-minister. For implementation of executive powers the President establishes Cabinet of Ministers. Cabinet of Ministers is subordinate to the President and reports to him.
 
 
Judicial Power: Judicial power in Azerbaijan is implemented by law courts. Judicial power is implemented through the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Courts of Appeal, ordinary and other specialized law courts.
 
Constitution

Following a referendum on November 12, 1995, the new Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted and entered into force on December 5, 1995. The country's basic law was developed in line with the fundamental principles and norms of international law.
Continuing the centuries' long traditions of statehood, and taking as a basis the principles expressed in the Constitutional Act "On the State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan", desiring to provide prosperity and welfare for the whole society and each individual, wishing to establish freedom and security, understanding the responsibility before the past, present and future generations, using the right of its sovereignty the Constitution declares solemnly its following intentions:
  • Protect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Azerbaijan;
  • Provide a democratic system within the framework of the Constitution;
  • Achieve the establishment of a civil society;
  • Build a secular state based on the rule of law as an expression of the will of the nation;
  • Provide worthy living standards for everybody in conformity with just economic and social order;
  • Remain faithful to universal human values, to live in friendship, peace and freedom with all the nations of the world and cooperate with them for this purpose.
  • As stipulated by article 1 of the Constitution, "In the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Azerbaijani people shall be the sole source of State power". Under article 2 of the Constitution, the people of Azerbaijan shall exercise their sovereign right directly through nationwide voting (referendums) and through representatives elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by free, secret and personal ballot.
FOREIGN POLICY

FOREIGN POLICY PRIORITIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN
  • Promotion of the establishment of pluralistic democracy based on market economy and the rule of law.
  • Conduct of an independent foreign policy aimed at the soonest restoration of sovereignty and territorial integrity of Azerbaijan over its territory.
  • Elimination of threats and risks to the security, political independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Azerbaijan.
  • Peaceful settlement of the conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan through negotiations within the framework of the OSCE Minsk Group on the basis of the principles of the OSCE Lisbon Summit.
  • Elimination of the consequences of military aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan.
  • Development of good-neighbourly and mutually advantageous relations with neighbouring countries.
  • Promotion of security and stability in the region.
  • Prevention of illegal arms and other transfers in the region.
  • Adherence to existing global non-proliferation regimes and establishment of a nuclear-free zone in the Southern Caucasus.
  • Demilitarization of the Caspian Sea basin.
  • Integration into European and Transatlantic security and cooperation structures, including NATO, EU, WEU, CE.
  • Facilitation of the development of various sectors of the country's economy with due consideration of Azerbaijan's crucial geostrategic location at the crossroads between the East and West.
  • Development of the Eurasian Transport Corridor of which Azerbaijan is a part.